The Driving Force behind Taiwanese welfare state: rethinking the influence of ethnical factor

During the "golden age of the welfare state", from the end of World War II until the middle of the 1970ies, the Taiwanese welfare Systems was relative residual. However, after the 1980ies, while most developed countries faced a tendency of welfare retrenchment, the Taiwanese Welfare System expanded rapidly and until recently, there is still no tendency for major social welfare retrenchments in Taiwan. In other words, the logic of Taiwanese welfare development can be described as "old politics" in term of Paul Pierson. This means politics does matter for the development of social welfare in Taiwan.
Since the major social cleavage in Taiwan is not class or left-right schema, but ethnical background and national identity among the population. The Power Resource Theories or Party-deference approach can not give a satisfied answer why Taiwanese welfare Systems expanded rapidly in the 1990ties, but relative slower in the 2000ties. These welfare state developments theories can neither give a comprehensive insight into the Taiwanese welfare state and its background, nor explains why the welfare development in Taiwan was relatively more expanded than Korea in the 1990ties. We argue the institutional or functional approaches show also limitation when applying to examine the welfare state development in Taiwan. 
This study combined the theories of welfare state development and researches of ethnical groups in Taiwan. We argue the factor "ethnical group" plays a significant role behind the dynamic of Taiwanese social welfare development, especially in the 1990ties. The welfare debate was influenced by the background that the social protection for Veterans was much better than other citizens. Since the majority among them were from Mainland China after 1949, the than opposition party DPP demanded therefore a "fair" social welfare Systems in the earlier 1990ties. This leaded to quickly introduction of the National Health Insurance and social allowance System for Farmers. But after the introduction of social allowances systems for the Elderly citizens in 2002, the differences of the social protection for difference ethical groups was reduced. We argue that the factor "ethnical groups" did not have the same impact after 2002.