Abstracts & Papers in Stream 2

The discussion of welfare regimes is extensive both in western and Asian contexts, but feminists have pointed out the lack of a gender perspective and the neglect of unpaid work in the construction of welfare models, and call for the gendering of welfare regimes. The discussion of welfare regimes in Hong Kong has similarly neglected gender and care and work issues. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study that has involved 60 single mothers on welfare, and interviews of policy analysts and service providers. The study addresses the knowledge gap by applying gender perspectives in the analysis of welfare regimes. It reveals the meaning of care, work and welfare adopted by lone mothers, and their experiences in encounters with service providers. The finding displays that lone mothers are overwhelmed by the heavy burden of caring work and the role as the only available carer in the family. The length of work time, intensity, and the lack of flexibility of caring work make the majority of lone mothers find the work demanding. By unveiling the social perception that the non-paid caring work is less demanding than paid work, and that the lone mothers should pay more efforts by taking up paid work instead, the dilemma faced by lone mothers is shown. It has, therefore, added a new perspective to policy analysis by presenting the subjective experiences and views of service users in relation to the definitions of needs and the impact of welfare on them. Women's resistance to power domination in a Chinese context in response to a welfare regime characterized by a dual-earner or an adult-worker model is documented.
East Asian societies are deeply affected by the Confucius culture. At the family perspective, the Confucius culture represents the extended family structure which the oldest sons are responsible for the parents. In addition, after marrying a man, a woman has to leave her maternal family and care for her husband's household. However, with the increase of education level and the labour participation rate of nowadays women, the traditional family structure that men get out for work and women care for the family is no longer a common scenario. Therefore, married women were expected to stay home and attend to the family, but they prefer keeping their jobs and pursuing their careers. This conflict makes it difficult for couple to step into marriage. These phenomena can be seen as the first-marriage age, the unmarried rate and the divorce rate. This paper points out that the governments should be aware of the changes of the societies, and to institute family policies for core families and single-parent families. The policies include child care, elderly care, after school activities, and paid parental leave. The policies are aiming at providing care from the society and decreasing the gap of expectation of marriage between tradition and modern.
Viewing the literature, there is no research seems children as subjective to analyze the issues of children's exclusion in Taiwan. Child was a person who understands his/her life. Childhood must seem as a social experience. Once children are treat as a subjective to concern their participation and social inclusion, the risks of children exclusion are need to be taken into account. In hence, the main focus of this research, which is children-centred approach in nature, is to obtain a comprehensive understanding the dynamic process of children's social exclusion in Taiwan. It will examine the following issues: 1.analyzing the concept of social exclusion in Taiwan, particularly children's social exclusion, 2.understanding children's social exclusion phenomena; and 3.basing on research findings to provide policy implications.
The study underlines the necessity of examining the phenomena and the dynamic process of children's social exclusion in Taiwan. This study tries to use literature analysis, focus group, interviews to collect data. The findings of the research could help with the arrangements of social policy. The contributions of this research will, it is hoped remind us that when welfare planners try to design action plan for children, must under the consideration of children-centred approach to know the phenomena of children's social exclusion.