Abstracts & Papers in Stream 2

The concept of successful aging within the community life and care for the elders is a subject. It's also an important view that the role of local community organizations and what characteristics should possess in the successful aging promotion.
The study combine natural observation and interview to investigate the concept of successful aging in Chuang-Rong community providing community care for the elders from 2003 to 2011 and the elder residents how to maintain their behavior. The study examines the three major components of successful aging proposed by Rowe and Kahn (1998): attendance environment continuity, activity space multiplicity, and life-arena interactive to analyze characteristics should possess in community organizations promotion of successful aging.
Study results showed that nine characteristics of community organizations health-care promotion: to provide life insurance and activity space for elders, to construct barrier-free environment, to establish a secure connection system, to encourage community elder residents to exercise, to make the opportunities for elders to maintain their cognition and be more creative, to build supporting care programs of basic physical checkup and referral, to inspire elders to learn and discuss, to improve interpersonal and intergenerational relationships for elders, and to promote volunteer service mechanisms within the community organization.
In conclusion, according to these characteristics of Chuang-Rong community, the concept of successful aging is not just an idea, but a lifestyle for elders. And it can make a great life quality in their remaining years.

Full paper download: 2.2.4 Meng-Shan Wu et al.pdf

Pension analysts have long observed that the mandatory savings public pensions in Hong Kong and Singapore may not generate adequate retirement incomes. But living arrangements and intergenerational transfers are stronger determinants of old-age income security in these populations. This study examines the extent of reliance on adult children by combining analyses of elderly income and family support for the first time, based on datasets from the Hong Kong census studies (1996, 2006) and Singapore's National Survey of Senior Citizens (1995, 2005). The analysis reveals a wide income gap between the 65+ age group and younger people. Public pensions were not a major source of retirement income. Instead, old-age income security was boosted by intergenerational co-residence. Among elderly people who lived with their adult children in Hong Kong, 32% had equivalised household incomes below 60% of the median for adults, compared to 79% among those who did not live with their children. Similarly, just 3% of Singaporean seniors cited public pensions as their top income source, whereas about 60% reported that they depended mainly on their children. The protective function of family support was more pronounced for women and individuals with lower incomes. Elderly persons from the lower individual income bands in Singapore were more likely to co-reside with their children and depend on them for financial support. In Hong Kong, the median individual income of elderly persons who lived with their children is 28% that of persons who did not. Declining co-residence in both societies therefore signals a risk to old-age income security, especially for women and low earners, as reflected in the rising relative poverty rate of elderly persons in Hong Kong. Pension policymaking has not directly addressed this risk so far and needs to focus on exchanges within the family.

Full paper download: 2.2.3 Ng_Kok_Hoe.pdf

Partnership is one of the means whereby policy of long-term care of older people can be implemented. This paper based on a qualitative cross-national research (England, the Netherlands and Taiwan).  So far, according to the research published (Chen, 2007, 2008 and 2010), the bottom line of long-term care - the fulfilment of older people's basic needs - has been addressed in all three countries studied.  However, the needs of older people required to be addressed for better quality of life  - social inclusion, power and autonomy - have been met in the Netherlands, followed by Taiwan but less so in England.  Fragmented care was a matter of concern in England and Taiwan and to some degree, the Netherlands.  This suggests that partnership in the care system should be recognised as a vital component if good quality of long-term care is to be promoted.  Although partnership is not an entirely new phenomenon; there is as yet no widely accepted model in operation.  This paper outlines the approaches that each country has adopted and the difficulties that they were facing. 

Partnership in this study is used in the sense of "cooperation", to see whether relevant actors - at national, county and municipal level (a total of 143 participants interviewed) - were sharing the same goals, whether they communicated well with each other and whether they were working together with the service users.  To begin with, within each country there must be shared understandings and goals for partnership to work.  This paper first explores these goals at the policy level and then moves on to examine partnership horizontally (strategically and operationally) and vertically.  Through horizontal and vertical analysis, this paper identified how and whether partnership in each country studied can achieve better joint-working structures to fulfil the policy intention of providing a seamless long-term care service.

Full paper download: 2.2.2 Henglien Lisa Chen.pdf

Foreign home helpers (FHH) make changes for caring the aged in East Asia, not least when an outsider becomes an insider under the same roof. Home-helping becomes a transnational social policy issue: over 230,000 FHH are working in Kong Kong, whilst Taiwan employs around 150,000 FHH to serve the frail aged; Japan experiments it too. A new regime of transnational care is possible as flexible labour regime and income differentials in East Asia enable FHH to take care of the elderly -- due to (female) labour shortage and the preferred caring for the elderly at home; the import of guest nursing/domestic helpers becomes an attractive policy options in some Asian societies. It is also an extended form of filial piety subcontracting that FHH serve the aged 24-hour as they live-in, paralleling the 24-hour global production regime under globalization! Socio-culturally, the "outsourcing" and "sub-contracting" of the traditional custom, filial piety (FP, respect and taking care of the seniors), confirms the change of home care regime in 21st Century. FHH are the main carriers for the (withering) cultural virtue of FP, yet they are the manifestation of the contradictions in hyper-modernizing Asia: as migrant workers, they are at best a nomadic sub-class in terms of social citizenship following T.H.Marshall's evolutionary conceptualization on social citizenship from the political and civil ones. But the demand for guest workers' FP-compatible job performance is contradictory to the nomadic social (sub-)citizenship (of minimal social inclusion) - FHH are both outsiders and insiders for the socio-cultural norms (filial piety) making! Examining the implications of a flexible labour regime for caring ageing society and the emergence of new, nomadic, sub-classes of social citizenship and temporal residency, in a globalizing world, this paper provides illustrations from East Asia to highlight the contradictions of transnational regime of home helping.

Full paper download: 2.2.1 On-Kwok Lai.pdf