Abstracts & Papers in Stream 2

The term "Ant Tribe" (yizu), referring to low-income graduates who live together in shabby urban neighbourhoods, has become a media idiom in China since 2009. However, compared to other neologisms such as "Dwelling Narrowness" (woju), it takes on more policy implications in contemporary China. Lian Si, a Beijing young scholar who invented this term and launched three surveys on young graduates in seven cities of China, has successfully drawn the attention of the China government to college graduates. What lies behind it is an academic gaze, enabled by the administrative power, on an ambiguously defined group of people. This paper argues that the related surveys and analysis fail to provide a deep understanding of the dramatic changes in contemporary China. The academic, media and administrative discourses on "Ant Tribe" function as repressing a reflexive understanding of state power, class formation and urban restructuring in China over the past decade. This paper, inspired by Pierre Bourdieu's reflexive sociology, concludes with offering alternative strategies for rescuing reflexivity from the discourses centred around the term "Ant Tribe".
Despite the increasing number of immigrant wives who have immigrated to Korea to marry Korean men, little is known about integration service utilization regarding this population.  Therefore, this article investigates factors that influence the utilization pattern of integration services among immigrant wives confronting myriads of problems related to adaptation to Korea.  The study analyzed data (N = 1,063) from the Marriage-Based Immigrants and Their Families in Korea: Current Status and Policy Measures conducted by the Minister of Health & Welfare in 2006.
This paper used hierarchical logistic regression analysis method based upon a modified Andersen behavioral model which categorized independent variables in need, enabling, and predisposing domains. The study found both the need of service users toward integration service and enabling factors were much more significantly explainable compared to predisposing factors. Thus, immigrant wives accessed integration service when having needs toward Korean culture and conflicts with their husbands. Also, they used the service when meeting financial difficulty and insufficient social networks in Korea. However, such utilization pattern of integration service among immigrant wives was different from their ethnic backgrounds.
These findings suggested that the government should conduct need assessment research as a prerequisite condition for service provision. Additionally, the government needs to develop mandatory Korean language class, as well as encouraging compulsory counselling for their families. More effort needs to be done on promoting advertisement activities so that the immigrant wives have more accessibility to immigrant services. As for the service organizations in the front line, social workers need to consider flexible service provision according to ethnic backgrounds. It is believed that the suggestions encourage immigrant wives to access integration service; moreover, the Korean societies' uncertainty related to integration of these women is reduced via the improved accessibility to integration service.

Full paper download: 3.2.2 MinChul Hwang.pdf

Since the Republic of Korea (South Korea) ratified Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (the Refugee Conventions) in 1992, there has been almost no implementation of the international standards until the country recognised the first refugee in 2001. Over the last decade, however, there has been some improvement in the government's refugee policies, that is in line with the significant changes of general immigration policies in response to the dramatically increased number of foreign residents including refugees.
It is controversial what is the scope of the States' responsibility in relation with the promotion and protection of foreigners' rights in general, in particular their economic and social rights. The case of refugees is, however, rather clear in the sense that the Refugee Conventions clearly provide the scope and level of entitlement of refugees' rights in comparison with the national or other foreigners. The Constitution of South Korea stipulates that "the status of aliens will be guaranteed as prescribed by international law and treaties" and that "treaties duly concluded and promulgated under the Constitution ... shall have the same effect as the domestic laws." Thus, the government of South Korea has the obligation to protect the status and rights of refugees in accordance with international standards and its own Constitution.
The laws and policies on refugees (and on foreigners in general) have developed in the way that government provides various "supports" to address the need of foreigners including refugees. The provision of "support", however, does not mean that the government recognised its obligation to the "rights" of foreigners. This paper discusses the gap between South Korean government's policies on foreigners and the related international standards with particular focus on economic and social rights of refugees.